Thursday, August 5, 2010



Mathematical Logic: Propositional Logic; First Order Logic.

Probability: Conditional Probability; Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation; Random Variables; Distributions;
uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson, Binomial.

Set Theory & Algebra: Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders; Lattice; Boolean Algebra.

Combinatorics: Permutations; Combinations; Counting; Summation; generating functions; recurrence relations;asymptotics.

Graph Theory: Connectivity; spanning trees; Cut vertices & edges; covering; matching; independent sets;Colouring; Planarity; Isomorphism.

Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Numerical Methods: LU decomposition for Systems of linear equations; numerical solutions of non-linear
algebraic equations by Secant, Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods; Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.

Calculus: Limit, Continuity & differentiability, Mean value Theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, evaluationof definite & improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivatives, maxima & minima.


Theory of Computation: Regular languages and finite automata, Context free languages and Push-down
automata, Recursively enumerable sets and Turing machines, Undecidability; NP completeness.

Digital Logic: Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits;
Number representation and computer arithmetic, (fixed and floating point).

Computer Organization and Architecture: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and datapath, CPU control design, Memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining, Cache and main memory, Secondary storage.

Programming and Data Structures: Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope,
Binding; Abstract data types, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees, Binary heaps.

Algorithms: Analysis, Asymptotic notation, Notions of space and time complexity, Worst and average case
analysis; Design: Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divide-and-conquer; Tree and graph traversals,
Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest paths; Hashing, Sorting, Searching.

Compiler Design: Lexical analysis, Parsing, Syntax directed translation, Runtime environments, Intermediate
and target code generation, Basics of code optimization.

Operating System: Processes, Threads, Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization, deadlock,CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O systems, Protection and security.

Databases: ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design (integrity constraints,normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential files, indexing, Band B+ trees),
Transactions and concurrency control.

Computer Networks: ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control techniques,Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IP( v4), Application layer protocols(icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http); Basic concepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and routers.

Thursday, January 7, 2010


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Friday, November 27, 2009


Before electronic computers became commercially available, the term "computer", in use from the mid 17th century, literally meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical calculations. Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that this could be done in parallel.
A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.
A programmable device that performs mathematical calculations and logical operations, especially one that can process, store and retrieve large amounts of data very quickly.

Desktop Computer - A computer that usually consists of a central processing unit (CPU), a monitor, and a keyboard as separate units, connected by cables.

All-in-One Computer - A computer with the central processing unit (CPU) and monitor built into the same device. Examples include the Apple iMac and the HP Touchsmart.

Laptop/Notebook Computer - A lightweight, portable personal computer that can fold closed when not in use that typically weighs less than 6 lbs. and is able to fit inside a briefcase.

Netbook/Mini-notebook Computer - A smaller version of a laptop/notebook computer with a smaller screen and keyboard. Screen size is typically 10.2 inches (25.9 cm) or less. Typically they also have lower performance processors (i.e. ATOM) than laptop/notebook computers (i.e. Centrino, Core) do. Examples include Asus eeePC, Acer Inspire One, Dell Mini9, and HP Mini.

Home telephone - A telephone that is not mobile and which may only be used within your home.

Basic mobile phone - A cellular/mobile phone with voice, texting, and basic data features like ringtones and simple web browsing.

Smart phone - A higher end phone with sophisticated features which can include touchscreens, full mobile web-browsing, and an underlying high-level operating system. Examples of smart phones include BlackBerrys, the Apple iPhone, HTC devices running on Android, devices with Microsoft Windows, Nokia devices with Symbian like its N and E Series (N97, E71), and devices by Palm.

Saturday, November 7, 2009

Procedure relating to an ordinary bill

There are three stages through which a bill has to pass in one house of the Parliament.

First reading - introduction stage A minister, or member-in-charge of the bill seeks the leave of the house to introduce a bill. If the bill is an important one, the minister may make a brief speech, stating its main features. After the bill has been introduced, the first reading is deemed to be over. Therefore, in the first stage, only the principles and provisions of the bills are discussed.

Second reading - discussion stage This stage concerns the consideration of the bill and its provisions and is further divide into three stages.

First stage
On a date fixed for taking up consideration of the bill, there takes place a general discussion when only the principles are taken up for discussion. At this stage, three options are open to the house. The bill may be straightaway be taken into consideration or it may be referred to any of the Standing Committees or it may be circulated for the purpose of eliciting general opinion thereon
Second stage, that is, discussion on the report
The next stage consists of a clause-by-clause consideration of the bill as reported by the committee. When all the clauses have been put to vote and disposed of, the second reading of the bill is over.
Changes or amendments to the bill can be made only in this stage. Amendments become a part of a bill if they are accepted by a majority of the members present and voting.

Third reading - voting stage
The next stage is the third reading. The debate on the third reading of a bill is of a restricted character. It is confined only to arguments either in support of the bill or for its rejection, without referring to its details. After the bill is passed, it is sent to the other house

Bill in the other houseAfter a bill, other than a money bill, is transmitted to the Rajya Sabha, it goes through all the stages in that house as that in the first house. But if the bill passed by one house is amended by the other house, it goes back to the originating house. If the originating house does not agree with the amendments, it shall be that the two houses have disagreed.

Joint-session of both houses
In case of a deadlock between the two houses or in a case where more than six months lapse in the other house, the President may summon a joint session of the two houses which is presided over by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the deadlock is resolved by simple majority. Until now, only three bills: the Dowry Prohibition Act (1961), the Banking Service Commission Repeal Bill (1978) and the Prevention of Terrorism Bill (2002) have been passed at joint sessions.

President's assent
When a bill has been passed, it is sent to the President for his assent. The President can assent or withhold his assent to a bill or he can return a bill, other than a money bill with his recommendations. If the President gives his assent, the bill becomes an Act from the date of his assent. If he withholds his assent, the bill is dropped. If he returns it for reconsideration, the Parliament must do so, but if it is passed again and returned to him, he must give his assent to it. In the case of a Constitutional Amendment Bill, the President is bound to give his assent.

Difference between a bill and an act

Legislative proposals are brought before either house of the Parliament of India in the form of a bill. A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, which, when passed by both houses of Parliament and assented to by the President, becomes an Act of Parliament. Bills may be introduced in the Parliament by ministers or private members. The former are called government bills and the latter, private members' bills. Bills may also be classified as public bills and private bills. A public bill is one referring to a matter applying to the public in general, whereas a private bill relates to a particular person or corporation or institution. The Orphanages and Charitable Homes Bill or the Muslim Wakfs Bills are examples of private bills.